Rhema. Рема

Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine
The article discusses a simile in Valerius Flaccus’ “Argonautica” (VIII, 27–31), which is connected with the myth of Endymion and the Moon. The author reveals lexical parallels and situational similarities with other texts, specifies the features that are common for the tenor and the vehicle of the simile, and establishes what is its tertium comparationis. The author also analyzes the verse lines (A. R. IV, 57–61; Verg. A. I, 498–504), which served as the literary sources for both the content and the form of the simile under discussion.

Key words: epic, Roman literature, Valerius Flaccus, “Argonautica”, similes in Roman literature.

For reference: Kotova A.V. On the sources of a simile in Valerius Flaccus’ “Argonautica” (VIII, 27–31). Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 2. Pp. 9 - 15.

Branch of Bryansk State Academician I.G. Petrovski University in Novozybkov
The article systematically considers the proper names from the lyrical and lyric-epic works of the prominent Russian author Alexei K. Tolstoy (1817–1875). The functioning of the poetonyms is analyzed in respect to their paradigmatic and syntagmatic aspects. As a result, the functional features of the poetonymosphere of the names used by Tolstoy are identified, as well as the role and significance of the poetonymosphere in his satirical, humorous, and medical poems, juvenilia, ballads, epic songs, parables, odes, fables, narrative poems, poetic billets, etc. The following important categories of poetic speech are revealed: the aesthetic function of words, the author’s individual semantic-stylistic system and the particulars of word usage, the meaning of the word in poetry.

Key words: A.K. Tolstoy, poetonymosphere, proper names in the poetic text, lyrical and liro-epic works, paradigmatic and syntagmatic aspects.

For reference: Pronchenko S.M. Proper names in the poetic system of Count A.K. Tolstoy: paradigmatic and syntagmatic aspects Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 2. Pp. 16 - 38.

Voronezh State University
The article discusses the poetics of time in Ivan Turgenev’s short novel titled “Andrei Kolosov” and is focused on the temporal organization of the text and its connection with characterology. The author establishes the plot-forming role of the poetics of time and considers the concepts that are fundamental to the subject of research. The role of two time axes – “the time of the narrative” and “the time of the plot” – is highlighted. And also our objective is to explain the time gap, which is largely determined by the weak position of the narrator.

Key words: Turgenev, Andrei Kolosov, time, short novel, poetics, narrative, characterology in short novels of I.S. Turgenev.

For reference: Ternika A. The poetics of time in Turgenev’s «Andrei Kolosov». Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 2. Pp. 39 - 47.

Lomonosov Moscow State University
The role of case in noun processing remains one of the unsolved issues in the visual word recognition literature. For instance, it is disputed whether different case forms have equal processing cost. The present work focuses on the processing of Russian nominal inflection. The goal is to assess how joint factors such as case, ambiguity and context affect visual recognition of nouns in the singular form. Here we explore the early stages of word identification using the progressive demasking task. Progressive demasking reveals comparable results to the lexical decision task, supporting the idea that case processing differences are general and not task-specific.

Key words: visual word recognition, morphological processing, progressive demasking task, Russian inflection, case, ambiguity.

For reference: Vasilyeva M.D. Progressive demasking task as a method to study visual word recognition: the case of inflected nouns. Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 2. Pp. 48 - 61.

University of Pavia
In this paper I analyze how time is framed in New Year Addresses by the Russian President V.V. Putin during his three terms in office. The analysis of key words (KWIC) such as prošloe ‘past’ and buduščee ‘future’, of past and future verb forms and of the contexts in which they occur make it possible to understand how the past and the future are conceptualized in discourse.

Key words: political discourse, frame, past, future, Russian.

For reference: Pinelli E. Presentation of the past and the future in New Year’s addresses: on the data of V. Putin’s speeches. Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 2. Pp. 62 - 83.

Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Pedagogical State University
Finite asyndetic complement clauses present an interesting phenomenon to the theoretical and typological works, considering that they allow a number of different interpretations: a parenthetical clause (Eto interesnyj, ya dumayu, vopros, lit. ‘This is an interesting, I think, question’), a complement clause (Ya-to, durak, dumal, segodnya vyhodnoj, lit. ‘I, as a fool, thought there is a holiday today’) or a direct speech construction (On dumal: «Kto zhe na menya napal?», ‘He was thinking: «Who assaulted me then?»’). The paper is devoted to the direct speech construction with the verb dumat’ ‘think’ in Russian. First, I show that the clause that conveys the matter of thought actually has all the properties of the direct speech constructions in Russian, see the list of the direct speech properties in works. Second, I argue that the direct speech construction with dumat’ (almost) does not show clause reduction, as it happens with the asyndetic constructions of supposition. Namely, the direct speech construction with dumat’ can have common nouns as subject of thought, the matrix clause can host adverbials, converbal clauses, epistemic expressions and main clause phenomena. All these properties are attested with both initial, medial and final clauses with dumat’ (i.e. irrespective of the linear position of the matrix clause to the dependent clause).

Key words: complementation, complement clauses, clausal arguments, asyndetic subordination, citation, direct speech, main clause phenomena.

For reference: Serdobolskaya N.V. Direct quotation construction with the verb dumat’ (‘think’) in Russian. Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 2. Pp. 84 - 111.

Lomonosov Moscow State University
The article looks at the notion of ‘feedback’ in education, psychology and linguistics. Giving a historical overview of feedback-related studies in Russia and abroad, the author focuses on the interpretation of this notion in psychology and linguistics, as well as the dual nature of its understanding in education. The article also defines the role of feedback in the assessment process, gives an extended typology of feedback and provides methodological recommendations on giving feedback.

Key words: teacher’s feedback, academic feedback, assessment for learning, motivation, pedagogical communication.

For reference: Korenev A.A. Feedback in learning, teaching and educational communication. Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 2. Pp. 112 - 127.

Moscow Pedagogical State University
This article discusses the poetics of colour writing in Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel “The Buried Giant”. The analysis shows that the novel is marked with the scarcity of colours and the colourlessness of descriptions, which is also typical for other works of this author. The basic “colouronyms” used by the author are grey, green and the one which is featured in the final episode of the novel – red. The fiery spots such as a sunset, a candle, fire or a fireplace are especially highlighted on the achromatic background. Moreover, the “chiaroscuro” techniques and the transitional time of day (dawn and sunset) play a significant role in the novel’s structure.

Key words: colorlessness in literature, monochromaticism in literature, colouronyms, the "cut-off" characteristic in the modern literature, images of a candle, images of a moon in the modern literature, images of a shadow in the modern literature, images of a light in the modern literature, Kazuo Ishiguro, "The Buried Giant".

For reference: Nesterenko Yu.S. The poetics of colour writing in Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel “The Buried giant”. Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 1. Pp. 9 - 18.

Komsomolsk-on-Amur State University
The article considers the specifics of addressing the issue of correlating the truth of art and the truth of life in the works of Viktor Sosnora and Joseph Brodsky. It defines a set of significant intertextual links between “Extravaganza” and “Homage to Yalta”. It shows that the text “Homage to Yalta” is focused on “Extravaganza” in its multi-level art organization. A conclusion is made about the difference in the aesthetic positions of the two poets with these distinctions revealed.

Key words: Victor Sosnora, Joseph Brodsky, “Extravaganza”, “Homage to Yalta”, intertextuality.

For reference: Shuneyko А.А., Chibisova О.V. “Two voices conversing aloud” (Victor Sosnora and Joseph Brodsky). Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 1. Pp. 19 - 27.

Russian State University for the Humanities
The paper describes mechanisms generating Old English poetic discourse from the point of view of finite and non-finite clauses building the narration in the poem “Widsith” and constituting the poetic line. The two-member “telling” proper names are regarded as structural-semantic models generating finite/non-finite clauses as well as determining their succession in the text. Non-finite clauses are considered to be the primary stage of transformation of the noun into the narration while the finite clauses are viewed as its secondary stage. The significance of semantically “complete” and “non-complete” (link) verbs for the process of ‘unfolding’ the nouns into the narration as well as the role of epic “formulas” (based on the heroic epic motives and themes) and the dependence of finite clauses upon the semantic potential of the generating nouns are discussed.

Key words: finite and non-finite clauses, proper nouns, alliterative verse, Old English poetic discourse, epic narration, “Widsith”.

For reference: Gvozdetskaya N.Yu. Finite and non-finite clauses with proper nouns in Old English poetic discourse. Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 1. Pp. 28 - 45.

Moscow Pedagogical State University
The article is devoted to exploring the functional aspect of euphemistic utterance in the framework of English dialogue communication. In the focus are pragmatic and interactional properties of the mentioned predicative unit, realized in its structural variability. Some topicality of the research is connected with viewing the euphemistic utterance as a specific indirect speech act, used to establish a communicative strategy for achieving pragmatic intentions in actual verbal communication, namely a defense strategy, or a manipulation strategy.

Key words: euphemistic utterance, dialogue communication, indirect speech act, communicative strategy, a defense strategy, a manipulation strategy.

For reference: Kvaskova L.V. Euphemistic utterance as a factor of realizing a communicative strategy in English dialogue. Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 1. Pp. 46 - 61.

Instituto Politécnico Nacional
For the Authorship Attribution (AA) task, some categories of character n-grams are more predictive than others, both under single- and cross-topic AA conditions. Taking into account the good performance of character n-grams, in this paper, we examine different features: various types of syllable n-grams as features (for single- and cross-topic AA in the English and Spanish languages). We show that the use of syllable n-grams is usually better than bag-of-words baseline and it overcomes the results obtained using character n-grams in one dataset of three (by 6%), on the other two corpora the difference in results is not favorable, but it is relatively small (2%).

Key words: computational linguistics, machine learning, authorship attribution, stylometry, feature selection, syllables.

For reference: Sidorov G.О. Automatic authorship attribution using syllables as classification features. Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 1. Pp. 62 - 81.

V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Pedagogical State University
The paper deals with the relationship between the Russian particle bylo and the information structure of the Russian clause. Not only the linear position of bylo within a given clause is semantically motivated, but the presence itself of the particle depends on whether its verbal scope is focalized. The phenomenon is related to the semantics of the particle and is discussed also in typological and diachronic contexts.

Key words: bylo, informational structure, focus, pluperfect, word order.

For reference: Sitchinava D.V. The Russian particle bylo: word order, semantics and information structure of a clause. Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 1. Pp. 82 - 101.

Lomonosov Moscow State University
The article researches the problem of compilation of linguacultural minimum (LcM) for foreign students-phylologists with an advanced level of Russian as a foreign language. The classification of cognitive units (lexical units including backgroud component of meaning) included in LcM on the basis of their relevance in language teaching, i.e. their ability to become units of learning, which consists of their cognitive and communicative relevance to the Russian national linguistic worldview. The criteria and experimental methods of selction of communicatively relevant units in Russian fairy tales based on their relevance to teaching are introduced and tested on the material of Russian fairy tales as a special type of precedent texts. The analysis is based on one specific type of reference to these precedent texts – Russian fairy tales onims, which are performing symbolic, expressive, and estimative functions. The article describes the phases of the survey on the common Russian fairy tale onims among Russian native speakers, with the aim to assess cognitive and communicative relevance of these units. Some examples of tasks based on such onims’ functioning in spoken and written languages are presented in the article. The results of the surveys are summarized in the list of cognitive units which should be included in LcM on the advanced level of study of Russian as a foreign language.

Key words: linguocultural competence, linguocultural minimum, bilingual personality, linguamethodical relevance, precedent text.

For reference: Ermakova M.A. Experimental potential of identification of communicatively significant units in Russian fairy tales. Rhema. Рема. 2018. No. 1. Pp. 102 - 115.


E.A. Lyutikova, S.G. Tatevosov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow State University of Education
The paper aims at achieving two related goals: to offer summarizing remarks to the Second Formal Approaches to Russian Linguistics conference and to provide the current issue of Rhema with an introduction to formal description of Russian. After a brief overview of the history of formal linguistics in Russia and critical reflections on the state of the art, we present eight contributions that address various research topics in syntax, semantics and phonology of Russian.

Key words: formal linguistics, syntax, semantics, phonology, Russian.

For reference: Lyutikova E.A., Tatevosov S.G. Russian studies and formal linguistics. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 4. Pp. 9 - 22.

M. Ambar, M. Dimitrova, D. Amaral
University of Lisbon
The goal of the paper is to examine the intriguing behavior of the subjunctive mood in matrix and embedded clauses. Relying on recent studies on tense-features valuation, we will first discuss some well-known properties of this mood namely tense dependency, event and obviation effects. Then we will turn to crosslinguistic variation focusing on the way three groups of languages, namely Romance, Slavic and Balkan, codify subjunctive. Special attention will be paid to the selection of subjunctive in main clauses and to some discrepancies displayed by the languages under scrutiny.

Key words: subjunctive mood, tense-valuation, evaluation.

For reference: Ambar M., Dimitrova M., Amaral D. A crosslinguistic puzzle for Subjunctive. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 4. Pp. 23 - 37.

University of Tokyo, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
This paper discusses palatalisation conditioned by morphological processes in Russian loanwords. In this lexical class, unlike in the native phonology, palatalisation of consonants preceding front vowels can be avoided. When loanwords undergo native-like inflectional or derivational processes, however, root-/stem-final consonants cannot remain non-palatalized. For this reason, this paper suggests that it is necessary to consider syllable structure in order to completely account for sound patterns in loanwords: it is important whether the nuclei originates from a foreign morpheme. In other words, syllable head also plays a key role in loanword phonology.

Key words: Russian linguistics, phonology, palatalisation, loanwords, Optimality Theory.

For reference: Watabe N. Morphologically conditioned palatalization in Russian loanwords. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 4. Pp. 38 - 49.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow State University of Education
This paper addresses the issue of gender mismatch in Russian. I discuss mixed agreement patterns in Russian nominal phrases and evaluate different approaches to their analysis. Using experimental data I estimate the current distribution of gender mismatch patterns for both attributive and predicate agreement. I compare recent data with statistical studies from mid-twentieth century and then discuss possible interpretations of the change in distribution of the patterns. In particular, I show that the phenomenon of gender mismatch in Russian correlates with the referential domain in the syntactic structure. New empirical evidence presented in the paper provides both synchronic and diachronic estimation of gender mismatch frequency in Russian.

Key words: gender mismatch, mixed agreement, noun phrase, DP, referential domain, Russian.

For reference: Gerasimova A.A. Gender mismatch in Russian: quantitative study. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 4. Pp. 50 - 60.

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
The present paper investigates the degree item čut' in Russian, which can be tentatively translated as ‘slightly’ or ‘a bit’. Its properties are of interest because it can appear in a range of different domains. We show that it can be found in the AP, VP, AspP and NegP areas. We argue that in all these domains, čut' makes the same semantic contribution. Specifically, it applies to a predicate that has a degree argument as part of its semantics and contributes the entailment that this degree slightly exceeds the standard of comparison on the relevant scale. When combined with negated VPs, čut' applies to a likelihood scale, which results in a reading comparable to that of the counterfactual almost.

Key words: formal linguistics, semantics, scalarity, degree modification, čut', slightly.

For reference: Kagan O., Wolf L. Toward a uniform account of the degree modifier čut'. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 4. Pp. 61 - 77.

Saint Petersburg State University, Higher School of Economics – Saint Petersburg, Moscow State University of Education
This paper argues for a general DP-shell analysis of clausal complements in Russian. It is proposed that clausal complements are licensed by a null P in Caseless positions. The argument is based on an agentivity restriction on čto- and čtoby-clauses. Experimental evidence is presented that makes use of the factorial definition of the agentivity restriction. Two alternative accounts – in terms of a partial DP-shell and semantic coercion – are discussed. It is shown that the experimental results favor the null P account over the alternatives.

Key words: clausal complements, animacy restriction, null preposition, Case, experimental methods.

For reference: Knyazev M. A general DP-shell analysis of clausal complements: Experimental evidence from the agentivity restriction on Russian čto- and čtoby-сlauses. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 4. Pp. 78 - 94.

Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
Russian event nominals can be divided into three types depending on θ-roles of postnominal genitives. The aim of this paper is to try to provide principled explanation for a restriction on θ-roles of postnominal genitives in event nominal phrases as a syntactic problem. This kind of restriction is thought to result from argument structures of event nominals and these phenomena have been dealt with as a lexical problem. In this paper we propose different syntactic structures for three types of event nominals which can explain restrictions on θ-roles under the frameworks of Distributed Morphology and phase theory.

Key words: event nominal, genitive, θ-role, NP, DP, phase, Distributed Morphology, Russian.

For reference: Miyauchi T. Phase theory and θ-roles of postnominal genitives in Russian event nominal phrases. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 4. Pp. 95 - 107.

Independent researcher
Eventive nominalizations and gerunds in languages such as English are typically analyzed as verbal structures embedded under DP, but since many Slavic languages lack articles, the availability of the DP projection in those languages has been hotly disputed. Russian nominalizations have been used to mount arguments both in support of the presence of the DP and for the opposing view. As the debate about the structure of noun phrases in Russian is far from being settled, this paper re-examines whether either of the arguments for or against the DP based on nominalizations is valid.

Key words: noun phrases, nominalizations, events, DP, Russian, cross-linguistic typology.

For reference: Pereltsvaig A. Russian eventive nominalizations and universality of Determiner Phrase. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 4. Pp. 108 - 122.

Saint Petersburg State University
This paper discusses the syntax and semantics of the Russian coordinating conjunction/particle ni in the light of Mitrović’s theory of conjunction. The crucial observation is that ni, although unable to function as an additive particle (in contrast to the positive i), can occur embedded into each of the conjuncts provided that it occupies parallel positions in the conjuncts. I suggest that the lack of particle uses of ni is due to its need to check the [+NPI] feature, which can be done via the J(unction) head with the same feature. Assuming that ni is decomposable into ne ‘not’ + i, the parallelism requirement is explained if the post-syntactic lowering of ne (and possibly some preceding material, hence the embedded occurrences of ni) onto each of the conjuncts is stipulated.

Key words: coordination, negation, pied-piping, clitics, NPI, Phonological Form, Across-the-Board movement.

For reference: Tiskin D. Ni: Negative concord μ in Russian. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 4. Pp. 123 - 137.

Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafyev
The paper deals with the laws of a "happy society", which was described by A.P. Sumarokov in his utopia "Dream", written during the reign of Elizabeth. Elizabeth Petrovna is remembered as a "Gentle Empress", who imposed a moratorium on the death penalty. A.P. Sumarokov had different views on her "perfect legislation". He disputed the laws of "Gentle Elisavet" in his utopia and panegyrical writings.

Key words: ode, death penalty in the reign of Elizabeth, the Empress Elizabeth, moratorium on the death penalty, Sumarokov, utopia as a genre 18th century.

For reference: Rostovceva Ju.A. The death penalty in a «happy society»: the «gentle Elisavet» law and Sumarokov`s legalism. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 3. Pp. 9 - 20.

Moscow State University of Education
This article examines the structure of the image of Russian in the book of the French writer and diplomat Еugеne-Melchior de Vogüé (1848–1910) “Russian novel” (1886), the influence of the biographical method and the cultural-historical school on the construction of an image from Vogüé. It is proved that the filters of the representation of the "russianness" in the book was, on the one hand, “neomysticism” of Vogüé, formed in the framework of the “Catholic Renaissance” in France in the XIX–XX centuries, and on the other, “the French standard”, traditional French culture ideal of proportion and rationality. Defines the status of Vogüé in the French discourse about Russia as a writer, opposing the stereotypical notions of the Russian "barbarians", "slaves" and "Asians" complex image Russian, synthesizing both positive (mysticism, synthetism, kindness and humanity) and negative (tendency to extremes, despair, nihilism, lack of balance and rationality) features of the Russian character and worldview for the first time proposed to consider the Russian literature as a moral and aesthetic specimen, which should be oriented writers of the West. However, shown the limitations of historicism, Vogüé, his penchant for mythologizing of the “Russian soul”.

Key words: “russianess”, “Russian soul”, biographical method, cultural-historical school, “catholic revival”, “neomysticism”, “The Russian Novel” by E.-M. de Vogüé.

For reference: Trykov V.P. Constants of “russianness” and evolution of the Russian cultural consciousness in the Eugene-Melchior de Vogüé’s book “The Russian Novel”. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 3. Pp. 21 - 39.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of Linguistics, of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The Russian language has undergone typologically rare changes in its subject reference marking pattern. Namely, if Old Russian employed verbal inflection for marking subject, modern Russian does it mostly by personal pronouns. During the history verb copulas which performed the referential function in Old Russian were completely lost. The reasons and details of such a transition are of great interest. At the moment, it is established that at the earliest stage pronoun expansion and copular loss have both occurred in nominal clauses, but until now it has not been investigated how exactly these two parallel processes interacted with each other and which of them triggered the initial shift. In this article, based on a new diachronic analysis of the monuments of the 11th–17th centuries (313 relevant clauses), we will try to answer these questions.

Key words: subject reference, personal pronoun, diachronic analysis, Old Russian language, Russian language, nominal clauses.

For reference: Budennaya E. Pronoun expansion in the history of Russian: nominal clauses. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 3. Pp. 40 - 64.

Ss Cyril end Methodius University in Skopje
The paper discusses the preposition-based pattern of differential object marking in the south-western Macedonian dialects of Ohrid and Struga. The author hypothesizes that the explanation of this synchronic phenomenon should be based on pragmatic-semantic criteria. The results from the analysis indicate that the preposition na marks a direct object only if its definite and animate referent is ascribed an important communicative status in spoken discourse.

Key words: direct object, animacy, discourse prominence, Balkan languages.

For reference: Bužarovska E. The Contemporary Use of DOM in South-Western Macedonian Dialects Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 3. Pp. 65 - 87.

Institute for Linguistic Studies, of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg State University, Higher School of Economics – Saint Petersburg
The accentual properties of the only accentuated text in Old Souletin, that is, the New Testament according to Matthew translated by Intxauspe, are analysed in this work. Two accentual classes of morphemes have been previously described in Souletin by Hualde: marked and unmarked. Following an examination of the accentual properties of the morphemes, a third accentual class of extrametrical morphemes is postulated in this paper. Another point analysed in the paper is the origin of accentual classes in Old Souletin, both marked and extrametrical morphemes being able to have different origins.

Key words: Basque, phonology, stress, marked morphemes, unmarked morphemes, extrametrical morphemes.

For reference: Zaika N.M. Accentuation of Nouns in Old Souletin Basque. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 3. Pp. 88 - 121.

Lomonosov Moscow State University
In this paper, we analyze verbal working memory measures: Alpha Span and Speaking Span on material of Russian language. This research demonstrates significant correlation between different measures of working memory. Correlation analysis shows that methods of verbal working memory capacity assessment are reliable and can be used for analysis of relationships between working memroy capacity and verbal fluency.

Key words: psycholinguistics, working memory, Russian language, verbal fluency.

For reference: Potanina Yu.D. Comparative analysis of methods of measuring the volume of working memory for native speakers of Russian (psycholinguistic research) Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 3. Pp. 122 - 137.

Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
The article considers the ambivalent image of a woman in the Victorian era on the material of the D. Mulock’s novel «Olivе». The author singles out and analyzes the accent of Victorian authors on the visual image of a woman, which is based on the binary opposition of infantility-maturity.

Key words: the Victorian era, infantilism, the image of a woman, Olivia Rothesay.

For reference: Krupenina M.I. The ambivalent image of the woman-performance in the D. Mulock’s novel «Olive». Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 2. Pp. 9 - 17.

Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories, of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article analyzes imagery of Norwegian fairy tales and folk legends used in Norwegian modernist poetry in the context of the poem “Now the Fairy Tales Are Hidden”, written by Gunvor Hofmo. The introductory part includes a brief biographical information about the author. The analytical part reviews imagery and plots employed in the poem, analyzes their role. A certain attention is paid to the links between the Norwegian and Russian folklore. The author analyzes the philosophical message of the poem and literary devices employed in it. The article can be of interest for researchers of Norwegian literature and Russian poetic translation as a literary genre and translators.

Key words: poetry, Hofmo, modernism, word imagery, Norwegian folklore, Russian fairy-tales.

For reference: Panov A.M. Now the fairy tales lie hidden: imagery of Norwegian fairy tales and folk legends in the eponymous poem of Gunvor Hofmo. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 2. Pp. 18 - 26.

Saint Petersburg State University
The article concerns the relevant issue of intertextuality, focusing on examples from videogames, as, despite being a phenomenon of modern mass culture, videogames have not yet been widely subjected to linguistic study. We examine the roles played by intertextual insertions from English phraseology and allusions to precedent texts – i.e. texts that are easily recognizable by speakers of the language – in the practical material of five fantasy role-playing videogames and three science fiction role-playing videogames. By studying and classifying the examples collected, we can reveal the linguistic study potential of videogames.

Key words: videogame, discourse, intertextuality, intertext, allusion, phraseological unit, precedent text, fantasy, science fiction.

For reference: Bogdanova K.V. English-language role-playing videogame discourse: the intertextual aspect. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 2. Pp. 27 - 40.

Saint Petersburg State University
The paper reviews Bulgarian complex sentences containing the subordinate clause with the conjunction bez da relating to an unaccomplished action. Grammatical and semantic properties of this construction are analysed, which are conditioned by the presence of the negation marker and the modal particle da. The paper testifies to the influence that the cumulative action of the two non- factuality markers exerts on verbal categories of the subordinate predicate. Russian translation correspondences are detailed, and an explanation is put forward for the case when Russian adverbial participles cannot serve as equivalent of those constructions.

Key words: conjunction bez da, subordinate clause of manner, negation, non- factuality, interaction of grammatical categories, Bulgarian, Russian.

For reference: Ivanova E.Yu. The subordinate clause of unaccomplished action in Bulgarian and its Russian parallels. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 2. Pp. 41 - 69.

Ural Federal University named after First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin
This article reviews topical approaches dealing with the problem of accuracy of neural machine translation. Classification of these approaches is provided in two groups: structural and linguistic. Moreover, the article sheds light on the most common problems of systems with neural machine translation. Effectiveness of the methods reviewed in this article is assessed based on BLEU metrics. Conclusions about the assessment of effectiveness of these methods are given in the closing part of the article.

Key words: machine translation, neural machine translation, neural networks, BLEU metrics.

For reference: Kalinin S.M. Review of current approaches to the improvement of accuracy of neural machine translation. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 2. Pp. 70 - 79.

Lomonosov Moscow State University
The paper presents the study of adjectives and attributive constructions denoting personality traits in Avar language vs Russian and English in derivational aspect. In section 1, the adjective class properties in these three languages are discussed. Section 2 is devoted to the analysis of the word-formation patterns of the Avar personality trait adjectives in comparison with the other two languages. Section 3 presents the structural types of the Avar attributive constructions and phrasemes denoting personality traits. Section 4 summarizes the results of the analysis including approximate quantitative estimation of different derivational and constructional types of personality trait nominations in Avar as compared to Russian and English.

Key words: personality traits nomination, word formation, adjectives, attributive constructions, phrasemes, Avar, Russian, English.

For reference: Jarbilova P., Kobozeva I.M. Formation patterns of adjectival personality trait nominations in Avar against the background of Russian and English. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 2. Pp. 80 - 102.

Pushkin State Russian Language Institute
The purpose of this article is to consider the use of theatrical anecdotes and actor's funny stories in the teaching of Russian as a foreign language for future actors and directors. Relevance and practical significance of the article is to reveal the didactic potential of the anecdote and actor's funny stories to further their use as teaching material in the lessons of Russian as a foreign language, inclusion this in textbooks and manuals.

Key words: Russian as a foreign language, the actor's funny story, the anecdote, the professional theatrical discourse.

For reference: Volkova M.I. Didactic potential of actors funny stories and anecdotes in the teaching of Russian as a foreign language for future actors and directors. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 2. Pp. 103 - 111.

South Ossetian State University named after A.A. Tibilov
On the basis of the materials that the author has gathered during the linguistic expeditions dialectal ossetian word moqo ‘pine’, that has its traces also in South Ossetian toponymy is described in this article for the first time. Questions of the origin and the correlation of this word with common ossetian term for ‘pine’ – næzy are considered here as well.

Key words: dialects of Ossetic, toponymy, etymology, ‘pine’, ‘fir-tree’.

For reference: Dzitstsoyti Ju.А. The Ossetian moqo ‘pine’ in the toponymy of South Ossetia. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 1. Pp. 9 - 21.

Saint Petersburg State University, Higher School of Economics – Saint Petersburg, Moscow State University of Education
Weak grammatical violations, i.e. violations that result in intermediate unacceptability, pose challenges for a formal description of grammar since it remains undecided whether they are the result of a true grammatical constraint or merely an epiphenomenal consequence of processing complexity. Neither informal grammaticality judgements nor corpus data alone can reveal fine- grained distinctions that may be inherent in a grammatical phenomenon. In this context, experimental syntax methods, which have gained in popularity in recent years (see [Schütze, Sprouse 2013]), can be helpful in providing evidence for subtle grammatical distinctions. In this paper I illustrate this thesis with a case study from the distribution of čto-clause complements in Russian focusing on the restriction on the complements of nouns, consisting in the sensitivity to the collocational vs. non-collocational nature of the context. Employing the methodology of the investigation of island effects in (Sprouse et. al), I provide experimental evidence for the grammatical status of the restriction on čto clauses, which cannot be firmly established on the basis of introspection or usage data.

Key words: Russian, complement clauses, experimental approach, acceptability judgments.

For reference: Knyazev M.Yu. Studying a weak grammatical violation with experimental syntax methods: the case of sentential complements of nouns with the complementizer čto. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 1. Pp. 22 - 40.

School of Linguistics, National Research University «Higher School of Economics»
The article proposes an analysis of three semantic fields in Russian Sign Lan- guage: ‘thick’, ‘thin’ and ‘pointed’. These fields are covered in Russian Sign Lan- guage with a particular group of signs, namely, Size and Shape Specifiers (SASSes). The paper describes features of SASSes in other sign languages, known from pre- vious research, and proposes an analysis of these signs in Russian Sign Language based on a detailed study of their contexts. Particularly, the article argues for dis- tinguishing two types of components in these signs (specified and non-specified ones), discusses the semantics of non-manual markers and describes two morpho- logical forms of SASSes.

Key words: Russian Sign Language, Size and Shape Specifiers, SASSes, sign language lexicon, nonmanual features.

For reference: Kyuseva M.V. Size and Shape Specifiers in Russian Sign Language. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 1. Pp. 41 - 60.

Lomonosov Moscow State University
The article is dedicated to the desacralization of saints, which is reflected in the functioning of the hagioanthroponyms (i.e. the names of saints) in the Spanish folklore. The dualism in the views on the saints of the Spanish people, who sometimes place an emphasis on their human hypostasis, can be noticed in the usage of the hagioanthroponyms in the Spanish idioms, phraseological units, proverbs, folk poetry and also in the phenomenon of the creation of the imaginary hagioanthroponyms, based on a wordplay. Sometimes the names of saints are used for the creation of the humorous effect in the text. In the article we reveal the causes of such usage that are possibly due to the peculiarities of the Spanish language consciousness.

Key words: hagioanthroponym, proper name, saints, religion, desacralization, Catholicism, the Spanish language, linguistic consciousness, linguo-culture, folklore, popular hagiography.

For reference: Lavrentyeva A.S. The desacralization of saints as a result of the peculiarities of the functioning of the hagioanthroponyms in the Spanish folklore. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 1. Pp. 61 - 79.

Russian State University for the Humanities
The paper deals with the use of words that were replaced with expressive diminutives (such as a deva ‘maiden’, hor' ‘polecat’, etc.), marked with respect to original items. These lexemes developed different stylistic and expressive connotations after replacement. This results from the decrease in the frequency of the use of a word and its transformation to an irregular item. Moreover, just the lack of a suffix makes a word marked and this strategy is the most economical. The shiftsin connotations are divided into three types: «neutral → expressive», «neutral → formal», «neutral → stylistic archaism». The conclusion is that the words are semantically predisposed to a specific change of connotations..

Key words: connotations, shift in connotation, archaisms, replacements, diminutives, expressive, semantics, endearment, means of expression of irony.

For reference: Fufaeva I.V. Sosulja, deva, syroega. Shifts in connotations: a case study of Russian lexems, replaced by diminutives. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 1. Pp. 80 - 93.

Belarusian State University
The article presents a structural description of the technique used in teaching oral consecutive translation of untranslatable French lexical units in the situation of subordinative bilingualism. It embraces two stages. Each stage presupposes a set of communicative-culturological exercises, in which the degree of similarity of corresponding French, Russian, Belarusian and English lexical units is taken into consideration.

Key words: professional training, intercultural professional communicative competence, methods and strategies of teaching, modeling and simulation technologies, role-playing game, creative tasks.

For reference: Tuchynski A.V. Technology of oral consecutive translation teaching of untranslatable French lexical units in the context of the dialogue of cultures ideas. Rhema. Рема. 2017. No. 1. Pp. 94 - 115.

Moscow State University of Education
This article examines the intertext of the novel «The Boy from Moscow» by L.D. Rzhevsky at the level of interpretation of the semantics of the titles, epigraphs, citations, allusive and associative plans and reminiscences. The intertext background of the novel is very diverse: as well as the twenty quotes and quasi- quotes that are present in the text, it also contains more than ten cultural constants of XIX and XX centuries.

Key words: L.D. Rzhevsky, intertext, Russian literature abroad, emigration, quota- tion, allusion, reminiscence, association, semantics of names, context.

For reference: Konovalov A.А. The intertext in the novel «Тhe Boy from Moscow» by L.D. Rzhevsky. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 4. Pp. 9 - 23.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Goethe University Frankfurt
In this paper, we propose a method to detect the discourse status of a referent of a noun phrase using shallow features of the noun phrase. We examine a number of theoretically motivated features that allow to distinguish noun phrases with different discourse statuses of their referents. We describe two experiments of applying those features to create discourse status detectors. We show that even the simplest features outperform the heuristic baseline. Also, we analyse the feature importances for the features that we use. This allows us to get the subset of features that are most useful for the classification and to test the theoretical hypotheses that lead to using these features.

Key words: discourse processing, coreference resolution, mention detection, machine learning.

For reference: Ionov M.I. Automatic detection of the discourse status of a referent of a noun phrase. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 4. Pp. 24 - 42.

ZAO «Eventos»
This paper is concerned with the parameters of conversion on the one hand and the category of Russian adverbial participles on the other. The latter one represents a source of language units undergoing strict conversion, which is not typical for Russian. The parameters and their values are elaborated with consideration of various studies in derivation. Lexical units resulting from conversion of adverbial participles are also viewed from the perspective of grammaticalization and lexicalization.

Key words: conversion, strict conversion, parameters of conversion, Russian adverbial participle, Russian.

For reference: Kovalskaya V.M. Parameters of derivational conversion and Russian adverbial participles. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 4. Pp. 43 - 57.

E.V. Kornakova1, 2, E.A. Lyutikova1, 2, P.V. Grashchenkov1, 2, 3
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, 2Moscow State University of Education, 3Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The paper discusses syntactic mechanisms of licensing by sentential negation. The two approaches to NPI licensing – anaphoric and agreement-based – differ with respect to their predictions about (in)dependence of licensing multiple negation-sensitive grammatical phenomena. The paper presents an experimental study of licensing genitive of negation and negative pronouns in Russian based on grammaticality judgments. The data shows that genitive of negation improves significantly the grammaticality of stimuli with negative pronouns.

Key words: negation, negative polarity items, licensing, genitive of negation, noun phrase structure, collocations, Russian.

For reference: Kornakova E.V., Lyutikova E.A., Grashchenkov P.V. Licensing properties of Russian negation. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 4. Pp. 58 - 82.

School of Linguistics, National Research University «Higher School of Economics»
In my paper, I will analyze a special feature of clausal complements in the Bzhedug dialect of Adyghe, a polysynthetic language of the West Caucasian family. While in many languages, clausal complements cannot trigger verbal agreement, in Adyghe, the matrix verb can bear plural agreement with a clausal complements, along with the default singular agreement. If there is a coordinate structure including several clausal complements, the agreement slot they correspond to can contain a plural marker. However, this is not obligatorily the case. I will discuss the conditions of this unusual agreement pattern. I will show that the possibility of agreement depends on at least two syntactic parameters: namely, the syntactic position of the clausal complement and the morphological verb form which is used in the complement clause. Non-standard agreement is also subject to a significant inter-speaker variation. Sometimes speakers who do not allow agreement with clausal complements admit instead long distance agreement. The most unexpected thing is that even if the complement clauses are marked with a (typically) non-argument suffix, they can control agreement. This points to the fact that neither the canonical view of the pronominal argument hypothesis, nor classical approaches to agreement, represented in many works on European languages is plausible for Adyghe. The data of this language must be accounted for in a perspective that regards verbal personal markers and verbal arguments as types of items, which are not isomorphic to each other and which both play role in the agreement marking.

Key words: clausal complements, agreement, Adyghe, syntacticposition, acces- sibilityhierarchy, polysynthesis.

For reference: Letuchiy A.B. Agreement with complement clauses in Adyghe. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 4. Pp. 83 - 104.

Saint Petersburg State University
The paper presents an overview of two related events: an international conference on the typologically oriented description of parametric variation in grammar and a conference for graduate and doctoral students with an emphasis on general, Nordic and Slavic linguistics. Apart from the issues of intra-linguistic and typological parametric description, the conferences covered a wide array of topics ranging from the syntax of clitics to differential argument marking and diathesis to noun phrase and numeral phrase morphosyntax. Several talks focused on the history of Russian and other Slavic languages and on their syncronic description, as well as on the documentation of minority languages of Russia.

Key words: argument structure, case assignment, clitics, differential argument marking, linguistic typology, parametric description of grammar.

For reference: Tiskin D. The 6th conference in the series «Typology of Morphosyntactic Parameters» and 4th Conference on General, Nordic and Slavic linguistics for graduate and doctoral students (Moscow State University of Education – Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 12–14 October 2016). Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 4. Pp. 94 - 115.

Lomonosov Moscow State University
The article covers main features of Turkish mournful songs called mersiye written in the form of qita. Leaning against qitas recorded in divans of Turkish poets of the XV–XIX cc. the author divides qita-mersiye in three types. These types differ both in formal features (length and presence/absence of chronogramm) and in motives as well as in the aims of their creation. In qitas of the first type poets expressed their own sorrow concentrating on motives of mourning to depict the way they felt. In qitas of the second type main part belongs to motives of departure, with biographical details being interwoven; in qitas of this type poets highlighted the fact of death and marked the time it happened with the help of poetical figure tarikh. In qitas of the third type poets tried to immortalize the name of the diseased and to praise him. The main role in such qitas is given to panegyric motives ornamented with details of the earthly life of the diseased.

Key words: medieval Turkish literature, mersiye, qita, tarikh. For reference: Semina A. On interpretation of motives in Turkish medieval mournful songs (on the material of qita). Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 3. Pp. 9 - 18.

Moscow State University of Education
The article reviews the contemporary novel «Aviator» by E.G. Vodolazkin in the context of the current socio-cultural attempts to rethink the Soviet past and build a dialogue with the Russian literary tradition and philosophy of the twentieth century, in particular the anti-utopian works of A.P. Platonov («The Foundation Pit») and «Philosophy of the Common Cause» by N.F. Fedorov. The author analyzes the transformation in the novel by Vodolazkin Platonov’s themes of overcoming death and symbols of the cemetery, collecting and saving things.

Key words: contemporary Russian prose, literary tradition, dystopia, Rus- sian cosmism, motive, plot, «Aviator», E.G. Vodolazkin, A. Platonov’s prose.

For reference: Soldatkina Ya. The motives of A. P. Platonov’s prose in the novel «Aviator» by E.G. Vodolazkin. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 3. Pp. 19 - 28.

Moscow State University of Education, Penza State University
The purpose of the article is to trace what kind of semantic transformations undergoes legal term outside of the legal discourse, as well as to assess the possible linguistic and legal implications of such transformations. In addition, the article propose criterion for distinguishing such phenomena as despecialization and determinologization, as well as the distortion (substitution) of the concept expressed by the term.

Key words: legal term, meaning transformation, determinologizations, despecialization, substitution of concepts, discourse.

For reference: Barabash O. Semantic transformations of legal terms outside of the legal discourse. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 3. Pp. 29 - 46.

Russian State University for the Humanities
The paper deals with Old English nominal compounds from the point of view of their place in the syntactic and narrative text structures. The inner semantic form and diffuse semantics of so called substantive epithets is analyzed in its relation to predicative constructions. The connection of compounds with the units of alliterative verse and some techniques of epic narration is discussed, the epic variation in particular. Their similarity to formulaic expressions and their role in the creation of epic imagery is shown at the example of the poems «Beowulf» and «Elene».

Key words: nominal compounds, syntax, semantics, alliterative verse, Old English poetry, «Beowulf», «Elene».

For reference: Gvozdetskaya N. Nominal Compounds in Old English Poetic Text (a Syntactic and Narrative Aspect). Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 3. Pp. 47 - 62.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow State University of Education
This paper addresses intralingual variation in the context of Russian event nominalizations. I present new data that expands our knowledge about case assignment strategies in Russian event nominalizations. Experimental data shows that external argument of nominalization exhibits differential case marking, and that both variants are available for all Russian speakers. My analysis suggests that the observed case variation is deter- mined by the amount of functional structure dominating VP in the nominalization.

Key words: nominalization, noun phrase structure, argument structure, case variation, differential case marking, intralingual variation, Russian.

For reference: Gerasimova A. A parametric approach to intralingual variation: problems and methods. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 3. Pp. 63 - 74.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow State University of Education
The paper investigates the internal structure of Russian adjectival compounds. A theoretical problem, posed by the author is the choice between binary or n-ary branching. As the paper shows, structutres, underlying derivation, are closer to the binary branching than to the n-ary branching. The argumentation is based on the views of the constituency structure, adopted in the modern generative framework. The facts, involved for the discussion, deal with the constraints on the compound derivation, the order of derivation and the accentuation rules. As the author claims, the properties of Russian adjectival compounds can be explained only if we adopt constistent binary branching.

Key words: syntax, constituents, projection, compounds, adjectives.

For reference: Grashchenkov P. Complex Adjectives and Binary Branching in Syntax. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 3. Pp. 75 - 96.

University of the Basque Country
This article discusses the morphosyntactic properties of Russian loweror paucal numerals (dva/dve ‘two’, tri ‘three’, četyre ‘four’) within a more general crosslinguistic view on (low) numeral constructions. We will show that the diachronic analysis of the processes resulting in the heterogeneous pattern triggered nowadays by these expressions and a comparison with other languages displaying similar morphosyntactic patterns can help us clarify more effectively the synchronic use of these constructions in Russian.

Key words: agreement, animacy, disagreement, genitive case, lower numerals, number, paucal constructions, quantification, Russian.

For reference: Igartua I., Madariaga N. Russian lower numeral phrases in typological and diachronic perspective. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 3. Pp. 97 - 114.

Moscow State University of Education
The novel «Lavr» by E.G. Vodolazkin reflects the world view of the Russian medieval times that is depicted in the symbols and in the explanation and understanding of the events by the characters. The plot is built around the episodes of certain lives and agiorgaphic topos. The fates and thoughts of the characters are connected with the quotes from the «Pchela» digest. There is also a number of references to the important works of Old Russian translated literature. Medieval texts are mentioned, retold and quoted creating historical background and the illusion of reality of events and characters.

Key words: E.G. Vodolazkin, «Lavr», medieval world view, medieval symbols, life description novel, agiorgaphic topos, «Pchela».

For reference: Trofimova N. Tratidions of Old Russian literature in the novel «Lavr» by E.G. Vodolazkin. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 2. Pp. 7 - 20.

The Institute of Informatics Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article is devoted to the study of phrasal structures in French and Russian languages in terms of translation transformations which aims to create a grammar using formal approach from Multivariate Transfer Cognitive Grammar. I reviewed and systematized phenomena of transfer of functional values in the secondary predication and adjectives; I identified frequency characteristics with regard to the analysis of patent texts. The results will be used to create a language module in the linguistic processor.

Key words: syntax, semantics, functional meanings, verbal phrases, French language, machine translation.

For reference: Galina I. Modelling the functionally synonymous transfer of the meanings of some phrase structures in the French-Russian language pair based on the material of patents texts. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 2. Pp. 21 - 43.

School of Linguistics, National Research University «Higher School of Economics»
This paper provides the description of the universal concessive conditional (UCC) construction in the Kuban dialect of Kabardian, an ergative polysynthetic language of the Northwest Caucasian family. The Kabardian UCC construction involves a subordinate clause which is marked with a combination of the conditional and additive markers and obligatorily contains an interrogative pronoun with free choice semantics. More surprisingly, for some speakers, the subordinate clause in this pattern may also contain a definite pronoun which receives quantificational reading if it is higher in the hierarchy ergative > absolutive > indirect object > possessor/ postpositional object than the free choice interrogative pronoun. It is suggested that this can be accounted with a semantic representation involving quantification over events.

Key words: universal concessive conditional, Kabardian, free choice, event-based semantics.

For reference: Lander Yu. Kabardian universal concessive conditionals. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 2. Pp. 44 - 66.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow State University of Education
The paper discusses grammatical properties of a special semantic class or relative clauses – appositive relatives. The specific interpretation of appositive relatives is usually derived from their position in the syntactic structure: it is assumed that appositive relatives attach higher than restrictives, at least above the DP level of the modified noun phrase. As for the internal structure of appositive clauses, the mainstream hypothesis is that they do not have any special properties of their own. The paper argues that in Russian, restrictive and appositive relatives differ significantly in their internal syntactic structure.

Key words: appositive relatives, restrictive relatives, noun phrase structure, pied piping, Russian.

For reference: Lyutikova Е. Syntax of appositive relatives. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 2. Pp. 67 - 87.

Moscow State University of Education, Russian Foreign Trade Academy
The article contains an overview of some observations made in the course of the research aimed at the identification of prosodic parameters of irony in British oral discourse. Irony is examined with regard to the specific features of British linguoculture. The author describes some tendencies in prosodic realization of ironic utterances revealed in the course of research and determines the role of prosody in conveying ironic connotation.

Key words: irony, ironic mode, prosody, context, oral speech discourse, British linguoculture.

For reference: Tuyakov V. Some prosodic realization of irony in British oral discourse (based on british cinematographic and television discourse). Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 2. Pp. 88 - 101.

Volgograd State University
The article is devoted to the analysis of the perception of contemporary British writer Tom Mccarthy’s novels in English and American literary criticism, including scientific works and the response in mass-media. The research points out the writer’s place in contemporary literary process, compares positive and negative reviews and designates the most critically observed topics of the novelist’s artistic objectives, such as traumatic experience, the relation of text and its reproduction, a search of identity.

Key words: contemporary English novel, problem, Tom Mccarthy’s novels, poetics, author image, literary criticism, literary text.

For reference: Bzhigakova D. The fiction of Tom Maccarthy in anglophone criticism. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 1. Pp. 7 - 16.

Saint Petersburg State University
The given article deals with a functional analysis of the properties of habban (hæfden)+ participle II in Old English based on the “Anglo-Saxon Charter” and “Catholic Homilies I” by abbot Aelfrich. The author draws a functional demarcation in the use of the construction with the possessive verb, on the one hand, and simple preterits as well as preterits with prefix ge-, on the other. An in-depth analysis of the retrieved contexts allows to claim that habban (hæfden) + participle II usually functioned as an aspec- tual-pragmatic marker. It could also assume a text-forming function, whereas its taxis-temporal characteristics were apparently underdeveloped.

Key words: Old English, perfect, preterit, preterit with prefix ge-, taxis, variation of verbal forms.

For reference: Bondar V. Between perfect and preterit: habban (hæfden) + past participle in the Old English texts. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 1. Pp. 17 - 35.

Russian State University for the Humanities
The article is devoted to the corpus research of structural features of Japanese representation form with the suffix «tari». We distinguish the following parameters relevant for description of the structure of this construction: presence/absence of an auxiliary verb, the number of «tari-form» in one construction and the syntactic position of the whole construction in a sentence. We will show how these parameters are related to each other in different types of discourse.

Key words: Japanese syntax, representation, corpus-based research, tari-form, comparative quantitative analysis.

For reference: Degtyaryova A. Structural features of Japanese representation form with the suffix «tari» in fictional prose, online texts of diaries and spoken language: comparative quantitative corpus-based analysis. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 1. Pp. 36 - 50.

Federal Research Center "Computer Science and Control" of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow State University of Education.
The paper focuses on the issues of establishing semantic content of syntactic structures via the contrastive study of the English and Russian language systems and parallel texts analysis for the tasks of machine translation. Particular attention is given to consideration of syntactic polysemy and ambiguity, and the mechanisms of polysemous structures presentation are proposed. The decisions are worked out on the basis of projecting the functional values through the traditional categorial meanings of language units and structures. The syntactic polysemy is understood as the immediate realization of more than one categorial head meaning within the same language structure. The phenomenon of syntactic polysemy determines the possible multiple transfer scheme for a given language pattern. The system of multivariant transfer rules is designed to be further specified by machine learning methods.

Key words: machine translation, syntax, semantics, transfer, linear structures, disambiguation.

For reference: Kozerenko E. Syntactic Polysemy and Ambiguity in Machine Translation Perspective. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 1. Pp. 51 - 63.

Lomonosov Moscow State University
The article offers an account of the historical development of Scottish Gaelic with an emphasis on language contact, and describes the language situation in modern Scotland. The author takes an advantage of a complex approach comprising comparative, historical, statistical and other methods.

Key words: the minority languages of Europe, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic history, the language situation in Scotland, Gaelic population of Scotland, Gàidhealtachd.

For reference: Korolyova M. Language situation in Scotland: history and modern status of Scottish Gaelic. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 1. Pp. 64 - 73.

1Moscow State University of Education, 2The Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3Russian State University for the Humanities, 4Institute of Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The work is focused on non-canonical argument marking in embedded clauses in Kalmyk, Lithuanian and Irish. We consider constructions similar to subject-to-object raising in English. In all the three languages subjects (in Irish, subjects and objects) of embedded clauses can be marked with the accusative, which is unacceptable for canonical transitive verbs in independent sentences.

Key words: subordination, complementation, complement clauses, adverbial clauses, raising-to-object, Kalmyk, Irish, Lithuanian, argument promotion, left periphery.

For reference: Serdobolskaya N., Arkadiev P., Shkapa M. Raising and related phenomena: non-canonical argument marking in argument and adjunct clauses. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 1. Pp. 74 - 91.

Ural Federal University named after First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin
The article is focused on the names of the bend of the river in the dialects of European North of Russia. The author presents etymology of the lexemes with orthodox roots, analyzes descriptive and metaphoric names as well as the lexemes borrowed from Finno-Ugric and European languages.

Key words: lexeme, semantics, Proto-Slavic language, borrowing, Finno-Ugric languages.

For reference: Teush O. Lexis of the semantics of «the bend of the river» in the dialects of European north of Russia. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 1. Pp. 92 - 101.

Belarus Maxim Tank State Pedagogical University
This article shows the most essential characteristics of the Early American literature and describes the special features of a prominent representative of New England literature XVII–XVIII Cotton Mather (1663–1728), his art style and the problems of his literary creation. The article concludes that “massive” writing style of Cotton Mather is formed in the synthesis of various genre trends including epics, documentaries, memoirs, etc.

Key words: New England, Colonial literature, American literature of the XVII century, literary-documentary prose.

For reference: Tserkovsky A. Ideological and artistic originality of C. Mather’s literary-documentary prose. Rhema. Рема. 2015. No. 4. Pp. 5 - 16.

University of Montréal
Several linguistic notions necessary for modeling linear order of simple clauses in complex English sentences are introduced: simple clause, complex sentence, semantic and syntactic Rheme, Theme and Specifier, syntactic and communicative autonomy of clauses. The surface-syntactic structure (in terms of dependency) and syntactic-communicative marking of complex sentences is supposed to serve as input for clause-ordering rules. Rules for the transition from the surface-syntactic and communicative structures of a complex sentence to its linear structure in terms of clauses are presented in full and illustrated in details.

Key words: English syntax, syntactic dependency, communicative structure and word order, simple clause.

For reference: Iordanskaja L., Mel’čuk I. Ordering of Simple Clauses in an English Complex Sentence. Rhema. Рема. 2015. No. 4. Pp. 17 - 59.

Vologda State University
The process of forming telescoped words in the modern English substandard vocabulary is becoming a more popular way of word formation. The analysis of theoretical works helped the authors to define the key terms. The main wordbuilding patterns of telescoped derivatives in the English substandard vocabulary are described in detail due to the use of the method of structural analysis of forming components. These models are illustrated by a number of examples. The use of the method of quantitative counting helped to distinguish the main peculiarities of the structural organization of telescoped derivatives in the English substandard vocabulary.

Key words: substandard vocabulary, telescoped derivatives, complete telescoped words, partial telescoped words, haplological telescoped words, component, fragment, word-building pattern.

For reference: Malysheva S., Konopleva I. Main Peculiarities of Structural Organization of Telescoped Derivatives in the English Substandard Vocabulary. Rhema. Рема. 2015. No. 4. Pp. 60 - 70.

1Institute of linguistics, Russian Academy of Science, 2Moscow State University of Education
This paper discusses the status of two types of priority arguments in Modern Russian – the so called weak dative subjects with non-agreeing nominal predicatives like kholodno, priyatno, protivno, and sentential subjects (CP and InfP). We argue that infinitive phrases can take the subject position only if a number of formal and communicative conditions are met, notably, if the entire infinitive phrase is topicalized, behaves as an island and blocks extractions and communicative splits. We also argue that the elimination of a weak dative subject, contrary to the claims made earlier, does not necessarily lead to the shift in the predicate semantics.

Key words: grammatical subject, priority argument, strong subjects, weak subjects, internal arguments, dative subjects, sententional subjects, zero subjects, stage-level-predicates, information structure, Russian.

For reference: Zimmerling A., Trubitsina M. Dative and sententional subjects in Russian: from inner states to general statements. Rhema. Рема. 2015. No. 4. Pp. 71 - 104.

1North Caucasian Federal University, 2Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute
The article is devoted to the investigation of predictive ideas of language competence, economy of language, the minimalist program, perfection and imperfection processes in languages in works of A.A. Potebnja and his followers, correlation of A.A. Potebnja’s heuristic theory with the scientific program of N. Chomsky.

Key words: A.A. Potebnja, N. Chomsky, language competence, principle of economy of language, progress in language, minimalist program, language perfection, imperfection.

For reference: : Stain K., Petrenko D. Language competence: from A.A. Potebnja to N. Chomsky. Rhema. Рема. 2015. No. 4. Pp. 105 - 120.

University of California
An in memoriam piece for Jens Nørgård-Sørensen (1954 – 2015) follows his academic career and achievements and discusses Nørgård-Sørensen’s contribution to Slavic studies and his activities as an academician.

Key words: Jens Nørgård-Sørensen, personals, Slavic studies, Russian studies, Danish slavicists, academic cooperation.

For reference: Andersen H. Jens Nørgård-Sørensen in memoriam. Rhema. Рема. 2016. No. 1. Pp. 121 - 122.

Vestnik of Sholokhov Moscow State University for the Humanities: "Philology" Series

Renamed «Rhema. Рема» on 9.10.2015

2015. Issue 3
2015. Issue 2
2015. Issue 1

2014. Issue 4
2014. Issue 3
2014. Issue 2
2014. Issue 1

2013. Issue 4
2013. Issue 3
2013. Issue 2
2013. Issue 1

2012. Issue 4
2012. Issue 3
2012. Issue 2
2012. Issue 1

2011. Issue 4
2011. Issue 3
2011. Issue 2
2011. Issue 1

2010. Issue 4
2010. Issue 3
2010. Issue 2
2010. Issue 1

2009. Issue 4
2009. Issue 3
2009. Issue 2
2009. Issue 1